Seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted infections among blood donors at a tertiary care hospital blood bank in western rajasthan india

Mahawar N. L., Sonam Alha., Dev raj Arya., Arun Bharti and Shailendra Vashishtha

Background: Transfusion-transmitted infections threaten the safety of patients requiring blood transfusion, which in turn imposes serious challenges for the availability of safe blood components that are still affordable in health care systems with limited resources. Strict criteria are followed while selecting a donor so that proper blood free of all pathogens is available for recipient.

Aim: To study seroprevalence of transfusion-transmitted major infections [HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), syphilis, and malaria] among blood donors at a Tertiary Care Government Hospital Blood Bank in Western Rajasthan (North India) and to compare positivity of these markers in voluntary and replacement donors.

Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted over a period of 2 years (July 2015 to June 2017). A total number of donors screened during this period were 55498. Samples were tested for HIV, HBV, HCV, syphilis, and malaria. Samples were Retested if found positive by third generation ELISA tests [HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HCV]. Comparative analysis was done using Chi-square for linear trend. Comparison between prevalence rates among voluntary and replacement donors was done using Chi-square tests using primer of biostatistics.

Results: Out of total 55,498 donors, 52,575 (94.73 %) were voluntary and 2,923 (5.27 %) were replacement donors. Male donors predominated, 54,875 (98.88 %) male and female 623 (1.12 %). The prevalence of TTI in blood donors was 2.21%. Average seropositivity of HIV, HBsAg, anti-HCV, syphilis, and malaria was 0.05%, 1.14%, 0.13%, 0.87%, and 0.01% among all donors. Significant difference (P < 0.001) in the seropositivity of HIV, HBsAg, HCV, and syphilis were seen between voluntary and replacement donors. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV, syphilis, and malaria was 0.04%, 1.10%, 0.10%, 0.79%, 0.01%, and 0.24%, 1.85% 0.55%, 2.36%, and 0% in voluntary and replacement blood donor, respectively.

Conclusion: Prevention of TTIs should be the main goal right now. The majority of donors in our country are voluntary, relatives or friends, who are apparently healthy, but transmission of TTIs during serologically negative window period is still a threat to blood safety. Therefore stress should be given on more strict donor screening strategy to decrease TTI cases. Voluntary donations are safer as compared to replacement ones and should be encouraged.

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