Prevalence and consequences of preterm admissions at the neonatal intensive care unit of tertiary care centre in south india: a retrospective study

Ankur Gupta., Dhrithiman Shetty and Kamath K Madhava

Background: Preterm babies have increased risk of morbidity and mortality which is inversely related to both gestational age and birth weight.
Objectives: To study the prevalence and consequences of preterm neonates admissions in NICU, K.S. Hegde hospital Mangalore as well as their morbidity pattern and risk factors for preterm birth.
Methodology: All preterm babies admitted from March 2014 to February 2016 were retrospectively studied. Information obtained included gestational age at birth, gender, risk factors for preterm birth, medical problems during admission and outcome.
Results: Preterm admissions constituted 14 % of the total admissions with a male to female ratio of 0.84:1.The commonest risk factor for preterm birth was premature rupture of membranes (40%) followed by Previous preterm delivery and Hypertension in pregnancy (10%) and multiple pregnancy (8%) respectively. The commonest medical conditions were Neonatal jaundice (36%) followed by respiratory distress syndrome in 27 (27%) and sepsis in 15 (15%). The case fatality rate was highest in neonates with neonatal seizure and Asphyxia (50%) followed by respiratory problems (30%) and birth defects (25%). The overall survival rate was 95% and was significantly higher in the mild preterm category compared to the very preterm and extremely preterm births.
Conclusion: Preterm births constituted a significant percentage of neonatal admissions with the case fatality being highest among those with neonatal seizure and Asphyxia and survival rate of 95 %.

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