Impact of pollution on aquatic fauna of river ecosystem: a review

Krishnakumar B. Vaghela, Devangee P. Shukla, Amita Y. Mishra and Nayan K. Jain

Fresh water is a natural element which is limited in quantity and it is being polluted at a very fast pace. Whole world is facing the water scarcity problems and along with humans, each and every living being needs water to survive. The influence of the pollutants are complex in mechanism and diverse in its direction and degree. It consists of hydro-chemical, hydro-biological, bio-chemical processes, and different ecological zones.The river biocoenosisis an open system with high intensity of the substantive and energy interaction between land and water, with heterotrophic type of metabolism. Polluting organic substances, heavy metals and other inorganic substances, changing the pH of the environment, have acute or chronic toxic influence on the different components of the water biocoenosis. The influence of the pollutant is a change of effects in different trophic levels of the bio-accumulation of the pollutant, which are part of the fundamental ecological processes.The anthropogenic activities are influencing through hydro-technical constructions, irrigation, and through dumping of polluting substances in aquatic system. The hydro-ecological state of rivers are changing under anthropogenic activities, due to changes in abiotic and biotic conditions. The abiotic factors - temperature, light, river flow, velocity, depth and configuration of the riverbed - change significantly after hydro-technical implements. The biotic conditions - food substances, substances cycle, bioaccumulation etc also change significantly under anthropogenic influence.

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