Development and evolution of facial musculature and facial expression

Author: 
Pawan Kumar Earasi and M.Karthik Ganesh

Facial muscles are a group of subcutaneous striated skeletal muscles that control facial expression. Generally they originate from the external surface of the skull bone or sometimes from fascia and inserts into the skin of the face. When they contract, the facial skin moves because of the underlying attachment. There are several facial muscles which produce different facial expressions at different situations depending on the need. Each facial muscle produces specific expression solely or in group. This peculiarity of facial muscles and the facial expressions are seen mostly in mammals and had evolved greatly in humans. This review focuses to associate the development with evolution of facial musculature and facial expressions.

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DOI: 
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24327/ijcar.2017.2797.0107