Comprehensive assessment of patterns of maxillofacial trauma and co-existing head injury: a retrospective study

Priyankar Singh., Anil Pandey., Ravi Shekhar., Yashwanth Rao and Tapan Sharma

Objectives: The chief objective of this retrospective study was to do a comprehensive assessment of patterns of maxillofacial trauma and co-existing head injury if any, in patients referred to the oral & maxillofacial surgery department of the only dental college in the largest educational city of India.
Material & Methods: The registered OPD files and CT scans of all Oro-maxillofacial trauma cases reported to the Department from January 2012 to January 2014 were retrospectively studied. The available data of 486 cases were retrospectively and comprehensively assessed based on patient’s age, gender, cause of injury, site of injury and if any co-existing head injury.
Results: Out of 486 maxillofacial trauma cases reported, there were 412 (84.7%) males and 74 (15.3%) females. Age predilection was more between 15-30 years age group i.e. 199patients (41%) followed by 31-45 years i.e.146 patients (30%). The most important cause of maxillofacial trauma seen was road traffic accidents (57.8%) i.e. 281 patients followed by assault (34.7%) 169 cases and trauma due to fall (7.4%) 36 patients. Only soft tissue injury was seen in 22 patients (4.5%) while remaining 464 patients has soft tissue trauma along with bony injury (95.5%). Most affected site of injury out of 464 bony injury cases, was mandible 252(54.3%), maxilla (Le Fort) 103 (22.1%), zygomatic bone 48 (10.3%), nasal bone 21(4.5%), orbital bone 19(4.0%), dento-alveolar 15(3.2%) and frontal bone 6(1.2%). Total 176 cases (36.2%) had co-existing head injury along with maxillofacial trauma.
Conclusion: Young males are subjected more to maxillofacial trauma mainly due to road traffic accidents. Though mandible is commonly affected bone but almost all facial bones are vulnerable to trauma. Maxillofacial injuries are oftenly associated with head injuries so an immediate comprehensive management is required for such patients.

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