Comparison of cimt among hiv seropositive and hiv seronegative subjects: a case-control study

Shekhar Vohra., Vimal Bharti., Ashok Sharma., Pramod K. Jaret., Rajeev Marwaha., Balraj and Amit Sachdeva

Background: CVD is an emerging cause of increased morbidity and mortality in HIV positive patients. Studies have demonstrated an increase in carotid intimal-medial thickness in HIV-infected individuals. Because of limited studies on relative contribution of HAART and HIV infection, per se, on the spectrum of cardiovascular health of the patients, we conducted this study in terms of CIMT assessment in HIV subjects, to generate more evidence on the subject.
Aims and Objectives: To compare Carotid Intimal Medial Thickness (CIMT) among HIV Sero-positive (Pre-ART/On ART) individuals with HIV Sero-negative controls and to analyze the association of HAART and CD4 cell count on CIMT.
Material and Methods: 75 patients infected with HIV and 45 healthy controls were enrolled in this case-control study, done between 1st July, 2015 to 30th June, 2016, from the ART (Anti-Retroviral Treatment) center, outpatient department of Indira Gandhi Medical College & Hospital, Shimla.
Results: All the three groups (Group A- HIV Seropositive, ART Positive , Group B - HIV Seropositive, ART Negative & Group C – HIV Seronegative Controls) were identical when compared for sex distribution, smoking and alcohol intake, however they differed according to Age and BMI distribution across various groups (p<0.05). Left carotid IMT, Right carotid IMT, Mean CIMT, and Maximum CIMT were evaluated. Among all the three groups, the difference between the CIMTs was significant when evaluated (p<0.05).
Conclusion: We observed that HIV positive patients had a significantly higher carotid intima media thickness at the level of common carotid artery as compared to HIV negative patients. CIMT in HIV positive patients was mainly determined by the duration of HIV infection and the CD4 counts of the patient after adjusting for factors like age and smoking.

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