Prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism in makkah region of kingdom of saudi arabia

Shahnawaz Ahmed Sheikh., Khawla Fahad AL-hazmi., Hussam Jameel Khinkar., Shatha Awwadh Althobaiti and Nisreen Abdullah Rajeh

Background: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) at birth is most commonly caused by disorder in thyroid gland development (dysgenesis) or thyroid hormone biosynthesis (dyshormonogenesis). Its early diagnosis and adequate treatment can prevent developmental retardation and other adverse consequences in infants. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of CH in Makkah province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).

Materials and methods: The medical records of 765 newborn infants who underwent laboratory screening for the determination of incidence of congenital hypothyroidism at Al-Noor Hospital, over a period of one year (September 2014 to September 2015) were collected and analyzed.

Results: The overall prevalence of CH was 1.94% and it was higher in females (1.04 %) than males (0.89 %). Results showed significant differences in variables, viz. nationality, maturity, weight and co-morbity of newborn infants. However, it was found insignificant in gender. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels exhibited insignificant differences in gender, nationality, maturity and weight. Free thyroxine (T4) levels in gender and maturity were found significant but it was insignificant in nationality and weight.

Conclusions: We concluded that the prevalence of CH in infants born in Makkah is almost similar to that of other countries reported earlier. It is also affirmed that TSH and T4 levels have important role in determining the incidence of CH.

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